The main benefit of intra-industry trade can be explained in simple terms by using an example of car trade between  Japan and Germany. Intra-industry trade means trade within the same industry, e.g., steel-for-steel. This paper develops a dynamic industry model with heterogeneous firms to analyze the intra‐industry effects of international trade. Therefore, to analyze the total effects of a FTA, we need to aggregate the impacts across markets and countries. The term is usually applied to international trade, where the same types of goods or services are both imported and exported. Intra-industry trade, also known as Horizontal Trade or two-way trade. Other economists regard trade diversion as relating to the long-term loss of trade resulting from inefficient producers (such as Denmark, in our hypothetical example) becoming more efficient following membership of the union. due to the difficulties of disentangling vertical and horizontal intra-industry trade in the data. Taking into account arrivals and dispatches together, the biggest decrease in intra-EU trade were observed in cases of  Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Finland, where intra-trade has decreased about 30%. However, many economists have made the point of claiming that these models provide no explanation towards intra-industry trade as under their assumptions countries with identical factor endowments would not trade and produce goods domestically. If the opening (or expansion) of trade is mostly intra-industry, then the impact on the domestic distribution of factor income is relatively minor. Although their wording is very similar the terms ‘inter-industry’ and intra-industry’ trade have a very different meanings. 3. Thus, more and more, countries are importing the same kinds of products they are also exporting. However, evidence shows that even when industries are disaggregated to extremely fine levels IIT still occurs, so this argument can be ignored. What is the benefit of economies of scale in intra-industry trade? However, this explanation has also been dismissed. These countries practice intra-industry trade, in which they import and export the same products at the same time, like cars, machinery, and computers. However, intra-industry trade involves products from the same industry being traded between countries, compromising the validity of Heckscher-Ohlin theory in today’s economic environment. Once a union is created, members agree to eliminate tariffs between themselves. Countries usually engage in inter-industry trade according to their competitive advantages. Intra-industry trade (i.e. The above statement can be explained in a more simple terms. It is not even determined by the general level of education or skill. Intra-industry trade represents international trade within industries rather than between industries. There are many reasons for this change, and of the main reasons can be pinpointed to be the global economic crisis that started in US in 2007, and within a short period of time extended to all EU member countries as well. Dispatches are goods in free circulation within the EU which leave the statistical territory of a given Member State to enter another Member State” (Eurostat, 2011, online). There are three types of intra-industry trade, Although the theory and measurement of intra-industry trade initially focused on trade in goods, especially industrial products, it has also been observed that there is substantial intra-industry trade in the international trade of services.[5]. Interpretivism (interpretivist) Research Philosophy, Handjiski, B, Lucas, R, Martin, P & Guerin, SS, 2010, Enhancing Regional Trade Integration in Southest Europe, World Bank Publications, EU Enlargement: Implications for East-West Trade, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Available at: http://www.cepr.org/pubs/bulletin/meets/719.htm, External and intra-EU Trade-Statistical Yearbook, Data 1958-2009, Eurostat Statistical Books, Johnson, D & Turner, C, 2009, International Business: Themes and Issues in the Modern Global Economy, Taylor & Francis, International Trade in Goods, 2001, Eurostat, Available at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/International_trade_in_goods#Further_Eurostat_information, Kemp, MC, 2008, International Trade Theory: A Critical Review, Routledge, Ruffin, RJ, 1999, The Nature and Significance of Intra-industry Trade, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. Intra-industry trade has evolved to be one of the important macro-economic practices that is beneficial in terms of maintaining macro-economic stability, promoting innovation and increasing the number of differentiated versions of the same type products in markets of the trading partner countries. In a situation where countries form FTA’s such as EU, trade will be vague and the pattern of trade will change. Today with the increasing force of globalisation international trade has become very complex with multi-billion transactions taking place every year. In particular, trade allows countries to specialize in a limited variety of production and thus reap the advantages of increasing returns (i.e., economies of scale), but without reducing the variety of goods available for consumption. In order to analyse implications of above figures for trade diversion and trade creation within EU, it would be more efficient approach first to analyse EU from the point of view of Free Trade Area (FTA) or a Union. Therefore, it can be expected that the CEFTA will lead to an increase in both intra-regional and intra-industry trade. Similarity is identified here by the goods or services being classified in the same “sector”. Heckscher-Ohlin Model and Intra-Industry Trade. According to Nigel Grimwade, "An explanation cannot be found within the framework of classical or neo-classical trade theory. increase in intra-industry trade - the intra-industry share of manufacturing trade has increased significantly since the late 1980s, although it varies by country, from around 30% for Iceland to 90% for Belgium. World Economy Intra-industry trade Intra-industry trade arises if a country simultaneously imports and exports similar types of goods or services. As the scale of output declines, average costs of production increase. The production now takes place at S, which is the point of tangency of higher isoquant X 1 of cloth, lower isoquant Y 1 of steel and the factor price line P 1 P 1.. K-L Ratio in cloth at S = Slope of line AS = Tan α 1­. Secondly, intra-industry trade gives opportunity for businesses to benefit from the economies of scale, as well as use their comparative advantages. One attempt to explain IIT was made by Finger (1975), who thought that occurrence of intra-industry trade was “unremarkable” as existing classifications place goods of heterogeneous factor endowments in a single industry. All this suggests that the intra-African trade benefits of AfCFTA will neither be as imminent nor as large as suggested by the widely-cited 52.3% figure. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that we focus on the sector “cars”. Accordingly, when Toyota produces more family cars, the lower will be the unit cost, and similarly, more sports cars are produced by Audi, the lower unit price of the car will be. Intra-industry trade supports the concept of comparative advantage because it extends the concept from product to different process of product and countries gain greater benefit. Within a free trade area many markets and multiple countries are affected by any economic or otherwise changes within that area. Intra-industry trade among the … Difference between Inter-industry and Intra-industry trade. In this was we can see the economic disadvantage UK had to experience as a result of joining EU. "[6], Shelburne, Robert C. ; Gonzales, Jorge (2004). The effect of this is that, facing lower priced, zero-tariff, imports from members, consumers increase their demand for these goods, and new trade will be created. Nevertheless, apart from the serious shortcomings of Heckscher-Ohlin theory, it still fails to explain intra-industry trade between countries, because the theory contradicts to the notion of intra-industry trade in fundamental level. Germany was leading in terms of the trade surplus for goods for the year of 2009,  at EUR 134 780 million. Instead, the level of worker productivity is determined by how firms engage in specific learning about specialized products, including taking advantage of economies of scale. (I 994), to identify vertical and horizontal intra-industry trade in the United Kingdom, These trends have mostly been attributed to the fragmentation of production (outsourcing and offshoring) as a result of globalisation and new technologies” (Handjiski et al, 2010, p.15). Examples of this kind of trade include automobiles, foodstuffs and beverages, computers and minerals. He was speaking at the commissioning and handing over of the AfCFTA Secretariat building in Accra on Monday August 17, 2020. Some writers have still made attempts to explain the intra-industry trade based on factor endowments by establishing link between the product specifications and the different combinations of the basic factors like labour and capital. [2] Hence, as intra-industry trade has developed many economists have looked at other explanations. Research suggests that, "Intra-industry trade has been considered in international trade literature as the explanation of the unexpectedly large expansion of industrial trade among OECD countries, for which it represented more than two-thirds of their total international trade by the beginning of the seventies. Inter- and Intra-Industry Trade within the European Union In intra-industry trade, the level of worker productivity is not determined by climate or geography. The Prevalence of Intra-industry Trade between Similar Economies. Instead, the level of worker productiv… The assumption is that before the union, members imposed differential tariffs on different countries to protect their own industries. Trade diversion, according to Czinkota et al (2008) is a cost of economic integration to a particular country of being a part of group of countries that trade freely among themselves, but maintain barriers to non-members. How does it make us richer? In order to analyze performance of any given member of EU, looking at intra-industry trade would not suffice; rather the trade surplus (extra and intra-EU combined) should be looked at. We can see that intra-EU trade  decreased in 2009 even more significantly compared to the exports. However, there are a range of benefits intra-industry trade offers businesses and countries engaging in it in general. One of the advantages of intra-industry trade is the division of labor which leads to _____. However this theory has attracted criticism due to a set of assumptions it makes. Also, the UK can now free up its resources, and move them out of butter production and into goods and services for which the UK has a comparative advantages over Denmark. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). For example, if Denmark and the UK form a customs union, tariffs on Danish butter must now be reduced, and once they are completely removed, the free market price of 120p will be highly attractive to UK consumers. trade of differentiated products of a single branch between countries) rather than inter-industry trade is an important and constantly growing modern international sector. [3] It is questioned whether the model applies to IIT at all, as it does not address directly trade between goods of similar factor endowments. Initially comparative advantage was taken as a wider concept but intra-industry trade simplified the product more by breaking them into process and then taking advantage of comparative advantage. Instead, they help to broaden the concept. This amount is more than double the amount of trade engaged in with non-EU countries. While trade between countries is can be imports and exports, depending on if the goods are coming into country, or leaving the country; movement of goods within European Union is referred to as arrivals and dispatches. Thirdly, international trade between countries will result in price equalisation. Moreover, the analysis states that the amount of total intra-industry trade among Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan was bigger than the EU before the expansion, and the recent EU enlargement put the Union ahead of above named countries in terms of the amount of inter-industry trade. Differences between inter-industry and intra-industry trade. This was the reasons why latter countries suffered the most from the global economic crises of 2007-2010. As the scale of output goes up, average costs of … The scope of this paper is limited to processed foods, and includes analytical frameworks from the gravity model, and classic approaches to product differentiation, product commoditization, pricing, and market structure. Prices may fall even further, relative to those of non-member countries, and the process of trade creation continues. Ruffin (1999) mentions three fundamental characteristics of Heckscher –Ohlin model of intra-industry trade as following: Firstly, each county exports products according to its comparative advantage. To put it simply Heckscher –Ohlin model of intra-industry states that “economies export the services of their abundant factors and import the services of their scarce factors” (Ruffin, 1999, p.4). It is not even determined by the general level of education or skill. 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