The data are corrected for seasonal variations, inverse barometer effects and post-glacial rebound. The papers describing this dataset are: [xx] Church et al., ‘Sea-Level Change’; HELCOM, ‘Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Area — HELCOM Thematic Assessment in 2013’, Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings (Helsinki: HELCOM, 2013), http://helcom.fi/Lists/Publications/BSEP137.pdf; A. If you have forgotten your password, 10 (1 October 2014): 7164–74, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010005; Aimée B. The best known coastal flooding event in Europe in living memory occurred in 1953 when a combination of a severe storm surge and a high spring tide caused in excess of 2 000 deaths in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, and damaged or destroyed more than 40 000 buildings. A. Slangen et al., ‘Detection and Attribution of Global Mean Thermosteric Sea Level Change’,Geophysical Research Letters 41, no. The most obvious impact of extreme sea levels is flooding. This is the fourth ‘Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe’ report, which is published every four years. Sea level has been rising over the 20th century, and the tendency has accelerated in recent decades. [xi] S. Brown et al.,The Impacts and Economic Costs of Sea-Level Rise in Europe and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation. projected change in the frequency of flooding events along European coasts. Further contributions may come from changes in the storage of liquid water on land, in either natural reservoirs such as groundwater or man-made reservoirs. Church et al., ‘Sea-Level Change’, inClimate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Damage associated with sea level rise is mostly caused by extreme events, such as storm surges. Holgate et al. Sign up to receive our news notifications, Reconstructed Global mean sea level (satellite and altimetre), Global mean sea level reconstruction (Uni Siegen), Time series of gridded Sea Level Anomalies (SL_cci v2.0), Relative sea level trends (tide gauge data), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, Summary of AR5 regional projections and allowances. In general, projected increases in coastal flooding are predominantly or entirely due to this sea level rise, rather than changes in storm surges (Humphrey and Murphy 2016) or large-scale weather patterns, though there are regional variations (e.g. The changes in sea level experienced locally differ from global average changes for various reasons. The strategy aims to make Europe more climate-resilient. Sea level changes can be measured using tide gauges and remotely from space using satellite altimeters. Reconstructions considered in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) estimate the rate of 20th century sea level rise at 1.6 mm/year, with significant decadal variation (see green curve in Figure 1). (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 13SM–1–13SM–8, http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/report/WG1AR5_Ch13SM_FINAL.pdf. The most intense surge events typically occur during the winter months in Europe. Climate Change: The Physical Science Basis. The contribution from melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets has increased since the early 1990s. 23 (6 June 2017): 5946–51, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616007114. The most obvious impact of extreme sea level is flooding. These studies project an increase in storm surge level for most scenarios and return periods along the northern European coastline, which can exceed 30 % of the relative sea level rise under the RCP8.5 scenario. In most parts of the world, projected shoreline dynamics are dominated by sea level rise and moderate greenhouse gas emission mitigation could prevent 40% of shoreline retreat globally. The best expert estimates for sea level rise during the 21st century were 0.4–0.6 m for the low forcing scenario (RCP2.6) and 0.7–1.2 m for the high forcing scenario (RCP8.5) [ix]. [ii] M. Rhein et al., ‘Observations: Ocean’, inClimate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Projections from process-based models with likely ranges and median values for GMSL rise up to 2100 (relative to 1986-2005) have been made for three RCP scenarios. This package consists of the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM/2013/216 final) and a number of supporting documents. Climate change can both increase and decrease average wave height along the European coastline, depending on the location and season. Global mean sea level in 2016 was the highest yearly average since measurements started in the late 19th century; it was about 20 cm higher than at the beginning of the 20th century. For references, please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/sea-level-rise-6 or scan the QR code. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Kathryn Mersmann › … When the contribution from local mean sea level changes and variations in tide are removed from the recent trends, the remaining effects of changes in storminess on extreme sea level are much smaller or even no longer detectable [ii]. EEA Web Team, Software updated on [xv] Alexander Nauels et al., ‘Synthesizing Long-Term Sea Level Rise Projections – the MAGICC Sea Level Model v2.0’,Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. Even a small action can make an enormous difference when millions of people do it! 2 (1 July 2012): 239–52, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0332-1; J. projected change in global sea level for three different forcing scenarios; Typically, the highest water levels are found on the rising limb of the tide. 3–4 (4 December 2014): 245–60, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1298-6. (New version data-and-maps/indicators/sea-level-rise-6/assessment was published), Horizontal spatial distribution of mean sea level trend in European Seas (January 1993- December 2015). Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The curve is corrected for the effect of the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment using the ICE5G-VM2 GIA model (Peltier, 2004). the local sea level relative to land averaged over a year or so), changes in tidal range, changes in the local wave climate or changes in storm surge characteristics. Church et al. 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